Post by Franz Gnaedinger
Stonehenge 1, circle of Aubrey holes
Harald Meller believes in a connection between Stonehenge and Nebra.
The concentric ditch and ringwall and 56 Aubrey holes are considerably
older than Nebra and may encode a similar calendar as the one of the
hypothetical 39 poles indicated by the 39 holes along the rim of the
Each Aubrey hole - or space between two holes - may have represented
a month of 30 days, one round of 56 holes 1,680 days, 5 rounds 8,400
days or 23 years, 9 rounds 15,120 days or 512 lunations.
How is the number of 8'400 days in 23 years found? by means of
a number sequence (which I ascribe to the astronomers of Tell Halaf
in Syria, 9,000 years ago)
365/1 (plus 1461/4) 1826/5 3287/9 4748/13 6205/17
21 years are 7,670 days (exactly 7,670.08... days). Add 365 days
and again 365 days for two more years and you get 8,400 days for
23 years (8400.57... days).
Now for the lunations. 15 and 17 lunations counted in the 30 29 30
mode yield 443 and 502 days respectively, 17 15 17 15 sum 81 lunations
1,890 days or 63 continuous periods of 30 days (Goebekli Tepe definition,
12,000 years ago, mistake less than one minute per lunation, or half
a day in a lifetime). Multiply the numbers by a factor of 8 and you get
512 lunations or 15,120 days (15,119.66... days).
A week may have been 7 days, a round of 56 months 240 weeks, 5 rounds
or 23 years 1,200 weeks, 9 rounds or 512 lunations 2,160 weeks, 8 times
64 lunations 270 weeks.
A basic year had 12 months or 360 days, a regular year 365 days, an
occasional leap year 366 days. For example 21 years are 7,670 days
(number sequence above), 16 regular years and 5 leap years.
Mike Parker Pearson discovered that Stonehenge 1 of around 3000 BC
was a cemetary. The ashes of the the defunct were buried in the plain,
and the ashes of high ranking nobles (we may assume) in the Aubrey
holes, whereupon the circle of 56 bluestones from the remote Presely
Mountains (hills) had been erected in the Aubrey holes.
The circle of bluestones may then have been seen as a 'generator'
of time for the living and for the worthy souls in a heavenly beyond ...
Maybe there had been much earlier connections to the Aegaean,
or a knowledge of basic number sequences already existed in Neolithic
Europe, wherever it came from.
Cradle of Jewish Culture in the Negev, postscript to a series of messages
on the Hebrew water finders published in sci.lang, the excerpt on Solomonic
geometry also here in this thread in sci.archaeology.
- - -
YHWH and the ten commandments, a postscript to the series of messages
on the Hebrew water finders, all seven messages in one (part 1/7)
Recapitulation: the archaeology of the Negev centered around the Har Karkom
and Mount Seir and Kadesh-Barnea, as explored by Anati, may suggest a refuge
for Egyptians and Hebrews and Canaanites over a couple of millennia, and
a series of Moses figures and Aaron figures contracted to one single Moses
and one single Aaron in the story telling of the Bible. Recognizing the symbols
in early literature we can regain at least a blurred outline of the historical
Moses received the ten commandments on a mountain (Exodus 20). Let us render
this mountain as a triangle of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 dots, from the base 10
to the top 1.
The top, Aleph or 1, may indicate the first commandement: YHWH or Jahwe or ja
is your God, the only God.
The two dots below, Beth or 2, may stand for the second commandment: don't
make and worship idols.
The three dots below, Gimel or 3, may stand for the third commandment:
don't use the name of God in vain.
The four dots below, Daleth or 4, may indicate the fourth commandment:
remember the sabbath, rest on day seven of the week like the Lord did
when he had created the world (seven being three and four).
The Pythagoreans regarded the number ten in the form of the tetractys
(equilateral triangle 1 2 3 4) as the holiest of numbers.
While the first four commandments (top of the symbolical pyramid) concern
God, the subsequent six lines of the big triangle concern the human sphere.
How many dots are in the triangle 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ? Begin with Y or J
for YHWH or Jahwe, numerical value 10. Half that number is H or 5. Add one
and you obtain W or 6. Add H and W and multiply the sum by H or 5, thus you
obtain 55 dots, number of all dots in the big triangle. And the key numbers
of this rather kabalistic number game, 10 5 6 5, yield the tetragrammon
YHWH for Jahwe.
The numerical version of YHWH, 10 5 6 5, is encoded in the mercy seat on
the Ark of the Covenant (Exodus 25), length 2.5 cubits, breadth 1.5 cubits,
length of the wings of the cherubs 1.25 cubits each, yielding the following
chain of proportions
length : wing : breadth : wing = 2.5 : 1.25 : 1.5 : 1.25
= 10 : 5 : 6 : 5 = Y : H : W : H
The tetragrammon implies the ten commandments and is encoded in the mercy
seat on the Ark of the Covenant in the sanctuary KOD DhAG qodesh kadosh
'holy' at Kadesh-Barnea in the desert of Zin, KOD meaning tent or hut,
and DhAG meaning able (among the derivatives of DhAG are Greek theos,
Latin deus, and Sumerian dingir announcing a deity), together the sanctuary
of YHWH or Jahwe.
The heavenly Lord will descend in a cloud, carried on the wings of cherubs,
take place on the mercy seat, hidden behind a curtain, and if you abide by
his ten commandments, he will mercifully consider what you may ask him for ...
The first representation of the ten commandments may then have been
a triangle of pebbles laid out on a slope of the Har Karkom, identified
as Mount Sinai by Anati.
YHWH and the ten commandments (part 2/7)
Laying out an equilateral triangle of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 pebbles on a slope
that symbolizes Mount Sinai and the ten commandments received up there
is rather tiresome. The large triangle could have been reduced to a small one,
the so-called tetractys or decadon, Aleph 1 Beth 2 Gimel 3 Daleth 4, in all
ten pebbles. Hereupon the small triangle may have been replaced by a single
letter, Daleth, given as a -- triangle, most clearly in the upper case
Greek Delta. These letters were preceeded by an Egyptian hieroglyph showing
an outstretched hand, maybe the hand of a god blessing his believers? then
seen as the hand of Jahwe "shewing mercy on thousands of them that love me
and keep my commandments" (Exodus 20:6) but now transformed into a triangle
symbolizing the ten commandments decreed by the Lord on Mount Sinai?
Dibér, Hebrew for 'word, speaking ability' begins on a Daleth. Wonderful
surprise: Dibér belongs to a compound naming the ten commandments!
Magdalenian BIR means fur, and TON means to make oneself heard. BIR TON
may account for English word. Imagine a shaman or shamaness beating the fur
of a TON BIR tambourine 'sounding fur' while speaking to the gathered tribe,
accentuating the spoken words with a rhytmic boom boom. Latin verbum 'word'
may combine BIR and onomatopoeic bum (bum bum bum). TON BIR could then
have a further derivative in dibér
BIR TON word TON BIR dibér TON BIR tambourine
Another way of representing the ten commandments, less abstract, more graphic,
is a petroglyph in the region of the Har Karkom. It shows a double tablet
subdivided into ten fields. Anati documented this petroglyph that strongly evokes
the two tablets from the Lord on Mount Sinai, and also identified the Har Karkom
as candidate for Mount Sinai, which I find plausible.
YHWH and the ten commandments (part 3/7)
Early scripts vary. Also Egypt had a triangle for the letter that became
Old Hebrew Daleth, while the Daleth in the Sinai script was different:
a small circle in the middle under an oblique line, or a small square
in the middle on a horizontal line.
These figures can be seen as a leather tube for keeping scrolls of papyrus,
and as a wooden chest for keeping tablets and ostraka, combined with
a pair of rods for carrying them, one rod behind the other, thus appearing
as a single line, either leaning on the tube or lying on the ground.
We focus on the chest. A square is hidden in the large equilateral triangle
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 sum 55. The odd numbers 1 3 5 7 9 sum 25 can be layed
out as a square of 5 by 5 dots or pebbles, while the remaining even numbers
2 4 6 8 10 sum 30 yield a pair of rods, each rod 15 units long.
The Ark of the Covenant was 2.5 cubits long, 1.5 cubits broad, and again
1.5 cubits high. The small side measuring 1.5 by 1.5 cubits was a square.
Another Hebrew word beginning on a Daleth was din 'law', in a compound
naming the Jewish law of the Torah, the law of Jahwe. Din may derive from
TON for making oneself heard, also present in di- of dibér 'word, speaking
ability'. And the Lord d i d make himself heard when descending in a thick
cloud on Mount Sinai: the earth quaked greatly, trumpets waxed louder and
louder, and the Lord spoke with a voice (Exodus 19).
Later versions of the Sinai Daleth may be seen as a vertical pole with
a small circle for a scroll attached in the middle, perhaps the emblem
of the law, widely spread in the southern Semitic area, while the Daleth
of the Hebrew square script evokes a door, maybe the entrance to the
tent or hut or house of the law din?
YHWH and the ten commandments (part 4/7)
A further version of the Daleth evokes a pole with a triangluar flag or
penon pointing to the left side. Lay out a pattern with pebbles. Make
the pole 30 pebbles high. Divide this height into 18 and 12 pebbles.
The 12 pebbles above serve as the vertical side of the triangular flag
or penon. Use 12 and 12 pebbles for the oblique sides of the flag,
and one more pebble for the corner of the triangle at the left end.
Pole 30, additional pebbles of the flag 25, in all 55 pebbles, numbers
of the large triangle
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 sum 55
2 4 6 8 10 sum 30
1 3 5 7 9 sum 25
The partial numbers 30 and 25 indicate a calendar with a month and a long
lunation of 30 days, and a long period of 25 years.
15 and 17 lunations or synodic months counted in the 30 29 30 mode yield
443 and 502 days respectively, together 945 days for 32 lunations, doubled
1,890 days for 64 lunations (mistake less than one minute per lunation,
or half a day in a lifetime). 1,890 days are 63 continuous periods of
30 days, or 270 weeks of seven days.
A year has 12 months plus 5 and occasionally 6 more days. A number sequence
provides good values for the number of days in a series of years
365/1 (plus 1461/4) 1826/5 3287/9 4746/13 6209/17 7670/21 9131/25
25 years are 9,131 days (and less than eighty minutes more), nineteeen
regular years of 365 days and six leap years of 366 days.
Jahwe rules not only the human sphere but also commands moon and sun in
the heavens above. ShA CA DhAG CA YHWH Jahwe, the ruler ShA in the sky CA,
the able one DhAG in the sky CA:
YHWH and the ten commandments (part 5/7)
The Negev centered in the region around the Har Karkom (Mount Sinai) and
Mount Seir (west of the Har Karkom, abode of Jahwe, rider of clouds) and
Kadesh-Barnea in the desert of Zin (north of Mount Seir) was the cradle
of the Jewish culture - a refuge for Egyptians and Hebrews (water finders)
and Canaanites, melting pot of civilizations, where alphabetic writing was
invented and letters were combined with numbers. KOD DhAG - KOD meaning
tent or hut and DhAG meaning able - accounted for Old Hebrew qodesh 'holy'
and modern Hebrew kadosh 'holy' and named Kadesh-Barnea, indicating a large
tent of ShA CA DhAG CA YHWH Jahwe, ruler ShA in the sky CA, able one DhAG
in the sky CA - and hidden behind a curtain was the Ark of the Covenant,
serving as pedestal for the 'mercy seat' which encoded the name of the
heavenly Lord via the proportions 10 : 5 : 6 : 5 = Y : H : W : H.
The Bible is right, only that we have to recognize the symbols. For example
the big number of people who left Lower Egypt for the Sinai were relatively
small groups who had the potential of becoming a numerous people. Moses
was a series of Moses figures, and Aaron a series of Aaron figures. We can't
read the Bible in the way we read a modern historical report. It conveys
history in the form of long living stories and symbols and many telling
numbers, for example 10 being the number Y of YHWH or J of Jahwe.
Numbers in the light of Bronze Age mathematics are a precious help in
finding the core of Biblical story telling.
Simple yet complex' is the formula approaching early civilization. It worked
well in the case of ShA CA DhAG CA YHWH 10 5 6 5 Jahwe, rider of clouds
from Mount Seir who gave Moses ten commandments on Mount Sinai.
The name of Mount Seir, abode of Jahwe, is an emphatic form of TYR for
the one who overcomes in the double sense of rule and give, with a parallel
in TYR emphatic Middle Helladic Sseyr (Phaistos Disc, Derk Ohlenroth) Doric
Sseus (Wilhelm Larfeld) Homeric Zeus. Compare Seir and Sseyr ...
YHWH and the ten commandments (part 6/7)
A further calendar springs from the sum 26 of the YHWH numbers 10 5 6 5.
A year has 14 short months of 26 days, 384 days, plus 1 and occasionally
2 more days, while 92 continuous periods of 26 days are 26 lunations,
and 295 continuous periods of 26 days are 21 years.
These numbers are found with the same methods as the ones of the previous
calendar (month and long lunation 30 days, and a long period of 25 years).
17 15 17 15 17 or 17 32 49 64 81 lunations are 502 945 1,447 2,392 days,
the latter being 92 times 26 days. As for days in years you may remember
the additive sequence
365/1 (plus 1461/4) 1826/5 3287/9 ... 7670/21 9131/25
21 years are 7,670 days or 295 times 26 days.
A pair of parallel calendars allow a better control of the time passing by.
Marie E.P. König identified the pair of antithetic ibices (Latin plural of
ibex) in the niche at the rear end of the axial gallery in the Lascaux cave
as emblem of the winter solstice. The same emblem is found in Asia Minor,
sometimes the ibices replaced by mountain goats.
Ibices are the most frequent symbol among the petroglyphs in the region
of the Har Karkom (maybe together with snakes, water symbols as on the
Goebekli Tepe). They are always shown from the side, their long round horns
forming a concentric double arc that may insinuate the trajectories of moon
and sun, but maybe also the pair of calendars?
In one case an ibex appears above a pair of giant footsteps in upward
direction, maybe the feet of Jahwe? The full name of the supreme sky and
weather god involved walking
ShA PAD TYR AS CA
DhAG PAD TYR AS CA
ruler ShA activity of feet PAD to overcome in the double sense of rule
and give TYR upward AS sky CA, able DhAG ...
The ruler ShA goes ahead PAD and overcomes in the double sense of rule
and give TYR up above AS in the sky CA, the able one DhAG ... (repetition)
ShA ... CA, DhAG ... CA Jahwe. For comparison: ShA PAD TYR Jupitter Jupiter
Iovis Giove and his byname DhAG PAD TYR Dis pater.
YHWH and the ten gifts (part 7/7)
Still another Daleth is given as a fish. What can this mean?
The triangular Daleth represents the triangle 1 2 3 4 dots or pebbles, called
tetractys or decadon, a holy figure for the Pythagoreans. The numerical value
4 of the Daleth refers to the base 4 of that figure, and the sum 10 to the Y
of YHWH or J of Jahwe, and corresponds to the ten commandments.
TYR Sseyr Sseus Zeus overcame in the double sense of rule and give, and so
did Jahwe on Mount Seir. He not only ruled the Israelites but also provided
them with what they needed, primarily water and food, and both might be
combined in the fish that lives in water.
Maybe the ten commandments were balanced by ten gifts of the Lord? and
someone will compile their list from petroglyphs around the Har Karkom
in the Negev dubbed Mountain of God by Emanuel Anati?
One petroglyph shows a woman giving birth to a smiling child, she spreads
her arms and hands and spares her legs, two arms and two legs making
Daleth 4 elements - life is the first gift. Although the ibices are drawn from
the side their Daleth 4 legs are marked, while the concentric arcs of their
long horns represent a pair of complementary calendars, hence time,
given to us in order that we make the best of it.